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GT-Four models

About the GT-Four models:

The Toyota Celica GT-Four is a Japanese high performance model of the ordinary Celica lift back, all GT-Four models were made with a turbocharged 3S-GTE engine and full-time AWD (All Wheel Drive). It was developed to compete in the World Rally Championship, whose regulations specify that a manufacturer must build road-going street legal versions of the vehicle in sufficient numbers. These specific vehicles are referred to as homologation special vehicles.

The significance of the Toyota Celica GT-Four in WRC history, previusly dominated by European manufacturers, is that it was the first time a Japanese car manufacturer entered the WRC with an AWD turbocharged car, won trophies and titles. Since then other Japanese manufacturer have been successful in the WRC such as; Subaru´s Legacy and Impreza & Mitsubishi´s Galant VR-4 & Evolution. The Celica GT-Four production cars were built at Toyota´s Tahara plant in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, and the rally cars were prepared by Toyota Team Europe in Cologne, Germany.

Toyota later, sadly, choose to exit the WRC to concentrate their racing efforts in Formula One…

Celica generations from LV

The Celica GT-Four was produced in three generations:

– Celica ST165

Picture source: http://gtfour.tumblr.com

st165

 

 

 

 

 

The Celica ST165 is based on the 4th generation Celica and manufactured between October 1986 and August 1989.

Based on the non turbocharged Celica ST162, this was the first legal road-going version of Toyota’s 4wd WRC car and at the time had Japan’s most powerful turbocharged 2.0 liter engine. Powered by the first version 3S-GTE engine, which made 185 bhp, the ST165 goes from 0-63 mph in just about 8 seconds. Just like the homologation rally version, the road car also had the water-to-air intercooler and fulltime AWD, which improved the handling. The ST165 GT-Four can be distinguished from the FWD (Front Wheel Drive) Celica by its front bumper, which has larger openings, and the “GT-Four” decals on the doors. The Celica GT-Four was updated in October 1987. As with other front-drive Celicas, the ST165 received a new grille, tail lights, and alloys. The export version also has ground effects, noticeably the side spoilers and dual front round fog lights. The center differential was changed from a manually lockable unit (either open or locked) to a viscous-coupling limited-slip type. The GT-Four is marketed in the USA as All-Trac Turbo and in Europe as 4WD Turbo.

 

– Celica ST185

Picture source: http://gtfour.tumblr.com

ST185

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Celica ST185 5th generation and the first 21 units ST185 were built in December 1988 as prototypes for various tests. The production model was launched in Japan in September 1989, and delivery began a month later.

While Toyota Team Europe still uses the ST165 for WRC rally, the street legal road car got replaced by the new designed ST185. The biggest difference is the exterior; while the pop-up lights stayed, the boxy design now turned into a more smooth and aero dynamic design. Japanese models were available in a stock narrow body or widebody shell. The biggest differences between the ST185 and ST165 engine-wise are the new twin-entry CT26 turbo and an air-to-air intercooler, cause it had suffered a lot with heat soak. The scoop on the bonnet leads cool air to the intercooler, and this same scoop gives away you’re looking at a GT- Four (or a replica). During the last months of 1991 Toyota came with a facelift for the ST185. This included different tail lights, front bumper (Japan only), font badges, and other options to choose from. Chassis number 15.446 is believed to be the first facelifted one. Later spec. 185’s also had bigger front brakes with single pot calipers, while the earlier models had twin pot calipers and smaller discs. Along with the facelift model, Toyota also introduced their new homologation special vehicle: The birth of the Celica GT-Four Carlos Sainz, which in stock modification did 0-63 mph in about 7 seconds, thanks to the new 2nd generation 3S-GTE engine now pulling 208 bhp instead of the 185 bhp from the first version of this engine.

 

– Celica ST205

Picture source: http://gtfour.tumblr.com

ST205

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Celica ST205 is based on the 6th generation Celica and manufactured from February 1994 to June 1999.

The Celica GT-Four ST205 was launched for the Japanese market in February 1994, and for the Australian, European, and British markets in the mid-year. This version was to be the most powerful Celica produced to date, producing between 239 bhp for the export model and 252 bhp  for the Japanese market model from an updated 3nd generation 3S-GTE engine. Influenced strongly by Toyota Team Europe, Toyota’s factory team in the World Rally Championship, the final version of the GT-Four included improvements such as an all aluminum hood to save weight, four-channel ABS(optional for the Japanese market), an improved CT20B twin entry/turbocharger, and “Super Strut Suspension”.

The 2500 units homologation cars built to allow Toyota to enter the GT-Four as a Group A car in the World Rally Championship also sported extras such as all of the plumbing required to activate an anti-lag system, a water spray bar and pump for the front intercooler, a basic water injection system, a small hood-mounted spoiler at the windscreen washers (also standard fit on all UK cars) and an extender rear spoiler mounted on risers. Out of the 2500 GT-Four WRC built, 2100 stayed in Japan, 300 were exported to Europe, 77 for Australia, 5 for New Zealand and a few to the general markets. The Japanese market ST205 came with a standard automatic climate control air conditioner, but ABS was initially optional and became standard from August 1996. Export WRC models only received a manual air conditioner system but all came with standard ABS.

Official WRC models in the initial 2500 were only produced in 1994 as required by the WRC homologation rules. All ST205 sold in Australia were WRC models and called the GT-Four Group A Rallye. Instead using the Super Strut Suspension as found in the production cars, the actual ST205 rally cars for WRC came with standard strut suspension.

 

– Caldina ST215

Picture source: http://www.celicasupra.com/

ST215

 

 

 

 

 

Sharing a platform with Toyota Allion and Toyota Premio, the Caldina is the Japanese version of Toyota Avensis wagon.

The 2nd generation Caldina AWD models are coded ST215, and are offered as Active Sports GT with the 3S-GE engine. The top of the line GT-T came with the turbocharged 260 PS (191 kW; 256 hp) 4th generation 3S-GTE engine, and included an AWD system similar to the Toyota Celica GT-Four. The GT-T also came with optional electronic stability control(VSC) (standard on Active Sports versions). The Aerial version features a large sunroof and countoured roof racks as standard. Weighing 1,470 kg, the Caldina GT-T offers similar performance to a Subaru WRX wagon achieving 0–100 km/h in 7 seconds. A refresh was given in 2000 with new bumpers and lamps a refreshed interior and extra lug added to the turbo manifold to stop the warping issue common on earlier GT-T models.

 

– The end of the Celica GT-Four era: ST246

Picture source: http://www.mr2.com

Caldina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The all-new Caldina of September 2002 is a pure sports wagon, and does not share body panels with Allion, Premio, and Avensis. The GT-Four version is build with a trimmed version of the 4th generation 2.0 liter turbo 3S-GTE engine and known as the ST246. All models have automatic transmission and the GT-Four only comes in tiptronic transmission. With the discontinuation of Celica, the Caldina was one of sportiest Toyota models sold in Japan.

Production of the 3rd generation Caldina ended in 2007. That was also the end for both the 3S-GTE engine and the “GT-Four” moniker in Toyota’s lineup.

 

 

Historical sources:
http://www.celica-club.co.uk/
http://en.wikipedia.org/
http://www.turbocelica.nl